Exploring Predictive Factors Influencing Returning International and American Adult Learners’ Motivational Orientations

Xi Lin, Chih-hsuan Wang


This study examined the predictive factors that affect motivational orientations of returning international and American adult learners in higher education. The Educational Participants Scale (EPS/A-form) was used to survey 493 adult learners including both international and American students. Findings indicated that the majority of motivational orientations are different based on distinct student status (International vs. American), gender, age, degree, number of children, years away from previous formal study, and payment methods. Implications of the findings are discussed in the study.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5430/irhe.v1n1p1


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International Research in Higher Education  ISSN 2380-9183 (Print)  ISSN 2380-9205 (Online)

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