Environmental and occupational exposure to chromium in Iran: A systematic review

Leila Tavakkoli, Zahra Zamani Nasab, Narges Khanjani


Background: Chromium (Cr) is a heavy metal and trace mineral found in various forms. Cr III is an essential nutrient, that is normally found in human blood and urine; in contrast, Cr VI is listed in group I carcinogens and is hazardous for human health. Several studies have been done about measuring human Chromium levels in Iran and this review attempted to summarize these studies.

Methods: Electronic resources including SID, Magiran, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were searched; with phrases including “Exposure to Chromium, Chromium exposure, Chromium measuring, Occupational exposure to Chromium, Environmental exposure to Chromium, Chromium” and their Persian translations until December 2, 2016.

Results: From the 1,309 retrieved articles, 32 articles were selected. In welding, electroplating and cement companies, chromium concentrations in workers who dealt directly with Cr were higher than others employees. In the general population, people who lived near a factory or an industrial center, or people who had taken dental treatments especially with orthodontic appliances, had higher Cr levels. Cr deficiency was also investigated in several studies, for its possible relation to diabetes type 2.

Conclusion: Cr VI exposure should be under surveillance in Iranian industrial workers; and residential areas should be kept in a safe distance from Cr producing industries. Cr III deficiency might be related to diabetes type 2.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5430/jer.v3n2p31


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Journal of Epidemiological Research

ISSN 2377-9306(Print)  ISSN 2377-9330(Online)

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