Inclusive Education: Origins, ‘Defectology’, and Kosovo’s Experiences of Inclusive Education

Roelien Joubert, Ingrid Harrington


Vygotsky (1993) first identified the theory of ‘Defectology’ to understand and describe children with special and additional needs, but essentially categorized them as ‘defective’ (Bartlett et al., 2004; Thomazet, 2009). It is with Vygotsky’s theory in mind that inclusive education frameworks in Kosovo and Russia are critically examined: whilst they both present similar methods of educating students with additional needs (Bartlett, Power & Blatch, 2004), analysis of these methods against their contrasting socio-political environments, requires careful consideration and attention. 

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International Journal of Higher Education
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