Physics Programs in Secondary Education from the Establishment of the Republic of Turkey to Present Day

Ayşe Gül Çirkinoğlu Şekercioğlu


‘Program development’ is a systematic process which includes steps such as determining general and specific goals of
teaching, choosing appropriate program materials, determining teaching methods, evaluation and assessment tools,
designing formal outlines for every lesson, testing and finalizing the program, continual monitoring, evaluating
program, and lastly enhancing program. This study examines contents of Physics lessons in Turkey and what kind of
changes has been made to the program throughout years. It also gives information concerning historical development
of this process since1924, in which the law of Tevhid-i Tedrisad was passed, to present day. Any new program is
initially practiced at pilot schools and then extended to other schools in the country, which seems in accordance with
the principles of the program development process. However, these programs have been practiced for only one or two
years at pilot schools, then directly extended to local schools throughout the country without making any necessary
improvements or enhancements to the program. This practice, as the study findings suggest, creates a vicious cycle.
When deficiencies in past programs became obvious even at other schools, the authorities immediately attempted to
develop a completely new program, which was again applied and abolished using same procedures. This is a prime
reason for why goals for education cannot be short-term. Additionally, study findings showed that experts who design
Physics programs in Turkey do not complete detailed unit analysis of Physics lessons, which in turn causes Physics
teachers at schools to face problems when planning effective lessons and setting goals for class.

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Copyright (c) 2018 Ayşe Gül Çirkinoğlu Şekercioğlu

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Journal of Curriculum and Teaching ISSN 1927-2677 (Print) ISSN 1927-2685 (Online)  Email:

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