Subject Specialisation in Primary School: A Theoretical Review and Implications for Policy and Practice in Zambia

Zanzini B. Ndhlovu, Bentry Nkhata, Ferdinand M. Chipindi, Bibian Kalinde, Collins Kaluba, Esther Malama, Robinson Mambwe, Katongo Bwalya, Enala S. Lufungulo, Hikabwa Chipande


The Ministry of General Education (Zambia) introduced subject specialisation at primary school. However, researchers have not yet sufficiently interrogated the concepts and modalities of subject specialisation at the primary school level to build a basis for an informed position and implementation. The paper aimed to review the literature and international practice relevant to subject specialisation at the primary school level. Interpretive techniques were applied while conducting secondary data analyses. The review established that there were different models of specialisation in education. There were also mixed experiences of subject specialisation in teaching and learning at primary school levels from the countries accessed. Nonetheless, intentional narrowed practice tended to contribute to the competent delivery of service in education. The paper, thus, welcomed differentiated types of specialisation based on school circumstances, learner grade level, staff numbers and teaching and learning facilities. Therefore, the authors proposed a study to explore the assertions and proposals.

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Journal of Curriculum and Teaching ISSN 1927-2677 (Print) ISSN 1927-2685 (Online)  Email:

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