Greener Golf Operations: A Comparative Case Study of Ontario Golf Courses Engaged in Environmental Sustainability Initiatives

Courtney Keogh, Cheryl Mallen, Chris Chard, Craig Hyatt


This research explored environmental sustainability (ES) initiatives at five top-ranked Ontario golf courses that weremembers of the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf (ACSP). The Research Questions were: (1) Howare golf courses adapting to safeguard the natural environment? (2) Why or why not are golf courses moving to ES?and (3) What are the arising barriers to ES in golf and how can they be overcome?Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observations, and unobtrusive document collection for the purpose ofcontent analysis. Data collection was framed with the dimensions of convergence by Houlihan (2012), including themotives, inputs, implementation, momentum, and impact. The dimensions were extended with the use of twoconstructs, including impression management or how the golf courses position their environmental messages, andmessage framing, or how ES was communicated to stakeholders. The environmental aspects of the examination wereguided by two Standards, including The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Requirements and Guidance forOrganizers of Sustainable Events and Sustainable Sport and Event Toolkit (SSET). Data analysis involvedHoulihan’s dimensions of convergence extended to include impression management and message framing. Thus,RQ-1 was answered, in part, based on the following dimensions: inputs, evidence of implementation, momentum,and impact. RQ-2 was answered, in part, based on the motives, inputs, momentum, impact, and impressionmanagement. Finally, RQ-3 was answered, in part, based on inputs, momentum, impact, impressions managementand message framing.

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c)

Management and Organizational Studies  ISSN 2330-5495 (Print)  ISSN 2330-5509 (Online)

Copyright © Sciedu Press

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' and ‘’ domains to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', please check your 'spam' or 'junk' folder.