Scoping Review of the Core Elements of Technical Assistance Models and Frameworks

Carl J. Dunst, Kimberly Annas, Helen Wilkie, Deborah W Hamby


A review of 25 technical assistance models and frameworks was conducted to identify the core elements of technical
assistance practices. The focus of analysis was on generally agreed upon technical assistance practices that were
considered essential for planning, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of technical assistance. Results
indicated that there are five major components of technical assistance and 25 different core elements. Analyses of the
models and components found considerable variability within and between components in terms of the core elements
that are considered most important or essential. Findings were used to define and describe the core elements of the
technical assistance models and frameworks and how they can be used in research and evaluation studies to
determine if the use of the core elements and practices are related to changes or improvements in program,
organizational, or systems practices.

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Copyright (c) 2019 World Journal of Education


World Journal of Education
ISSN 1925-0746(Print)  ISSN 1925-0754(Online)

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